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This section contains articles on phenomena or versions that may be interesting or useful to researchers of the unexplained facts in one way or another.

Leonid Konovalov, the phenomenon of the memory field

Added Thu, 23/03/2017

In the article "Entities that are outside the visible range" we dealt with the "phenomenon of memory fields" (or "memory space"). The author of the theory is the Voronezh paranormal researcher Heinrich Silanes. In his opinion, any material structure at any moment of its existence, leaves its mark on the power lines of the energy fields and reflected (excitation) of such prints and locks of his special photographic equipment.

In the article we focused on the fact that the appearance of the photos that are considered proof of the theory, very similar to the usual defects of shooting, developing and printing. We were hoping to find a photographer with many years of experience with film or shooting in UV and IR ranges, to comment on the situation. To find such a person we haven't succeeded yet, but in the process of podgotovkoy articles, we stumbled upon the website of Leonid Vasilievich Konovalov, where he commented on photos of Henry Mikhailovich Celanova. He on a speciality the operator of film and television, associate Professor in the Department of cinema technology. Since September 2004 he has taught courses on "Processes and materials" in the school of journalism. The Leonid Konovalov, is known to wide circles of the population through participation in the show "Battle of psychics", but we are important to the technical foprosy he was a professional.

We won't reprint all the pages of the forum topics, you can read for yourself by clicking on the link. For our site the main zadokumentirovat the General idea is personal opinion of this photographer.

In addition to the analysis of the photos, Leonid Konovalov touched the equipment with which they were received. The article of the magazine "Around the world" was written:

A lot of available information can be found in a narrow band of the ultraviolet part of the spectrum near the lower limit of the visible range...
The most important details of retro camera's special lens and plate or film which is virtually gelatinous layer, retarding the passage of ultraviolet waves.
Question about the lens stood up that's why. We all know that the window glass does not transmit ultraviolet light, so the apartment is impossible to sunbathe in the ordinary glass Windows. For the purchase of tanning at home you need quartz glass.
Normal lens of the camera plays the role of a banal window glass; at first, the occasional "snapshots of the past" in the chamber penetrated only a small fraction of ultraviolet radiation... Realizing this, I'm only engaged in extremely hard work.
Large sand away tiny quartz crystals, then melted them and molded very thin lenses; finally, long and carefully, according to the method of Newton, hand polished it. As a result, truly selfless labour of a year was ready to "lens of time".
Henry M. inserted in the camera and took test shots from the doorway of his laboratory. Then came a terrific frame with long gone car.

Next will be the opinion of Leonid Konovalov, taken from the forum.

The first step he examines in detail the equipment, with the aid of which the photos were taken. In particular with the manufacture of lenses. It is based on the following article:

Silanes engaged in extremely hard work. Large sand away tiny quartz crystals, then melted them and molded very thin lenses; finally, long and carefully, according to the method of Newton, hand polished it. As a result, truly selfless labour of a year was ready to "lens of time".

Leonid Konovalov indicates that the lens is made by Celanova pretty low quality compared to the factory counterparts, which leads to various defects when photographing:

Let's remember how to make glass.

The feedstock is taken the sand. It melts at a very high temperature of about 1700 degrees. To lower the melting point, added to the furnace soda (sodium carbonate). In addition, the charge injected limestone (calcium carbonate) — then the glass becomes water resistant. A cobalt oxide or selenium help to get rid of the greenish hue.
In this way, a pane of glass. However, window glass Celanova not satisfied — it does not transmit the ultraviolet light necessary for photography. That is what is written in the article:

The most important details of retro camera is a special lens...
Question about the lens stood up that's why. We all know that the window glass does not transmit ultraviolet light, so the apartment is impossible to sunbathe in the ordinary glass Windows. For the purchase of tanning at home you need quartz glass.

In fact, window glass transmits ultraviolet light. I know for sure, because we have VGIK is the spectrophotometer SF-16 (trade LOMO), which I have repeatedly measured the transmittance of various glasses in the ultraviolet range, ultraviolet filters for shooting, different points from the sun (which is capture all the ultraviolet light) etc.. [...]

So, window glass transmits ultraviolet light ranging from 340 nm and the filter type UV-1, that are used by almost all photographers expensive cameras, indeed, cut off all the ultraviolet and leak from 390 nm.

Sunburn occurs predominantly from wavelengths of about 320 nm. Therefore, the window holds the "ultraviolet sun" (so to speak), but ignores the near ultraviolet. But let's not be so picky about the inventor of self-Silnowo. Now, if he was a student, then, of course, he would chide for the wrong wording. Quartz glass really well transmit ultraviolet light, however, not all possible ultraviolet radiation, but only the middle.
All the ultraviolet is divided into 4 sections: middle, middle, far, vacuum. Quartz glass begins to flow from about 170-200 nm. However, it is not clear why it was necessary most to produce quartz glass, if our industry for decades with its releases?

He further refers to the GOST 15130-86 of the Soviet Union, which is governed by the spectral transmittance of quartz glass.

You know how for the manufacture of quartz glass is different from window? Just one component baking soda. When the melted quartz glass, soda the composition of the batch is entered. Soda, as you already know, is introduced in order to lower the melting point of sand (quartz) from 1700 to 1400 degrees. No soda sand will only melt at a temperature of 1700 °C! I in the end put an exclamation point to make it clear that this is a very high melting point. I wonder how the strength has reached 1700 degrees - the melting point of quartz? Certainly not in the kitchen, whether on a gas burner?
A gas stove is natural gas, which consists mainly of methane (CH4, 82-98%). The maximum flame temperature of 800-900 degrees. The flame of the kerosene, for example, gives a temperature of only 800°. (By the way, the American skyscrapers in 2001, could not fail from the fact that jet fuel when burning melted iron floor beams, according to an official American version — flame kerosene actually gland not hurt. )
Looked muffle furnaces give only the temperature to 1050-1150°.

I wonder what is Silane melted carefully selected "tiny quartz crystals"?

In industrial production the brewing process optical glass lasts about 24 hours. Heating is carried out typically with hydrogen burners.
For example, our retiree has mastered this technology and at home in the kitchen set the balloons with hydrogen and the whole day could melt his sand. But in what vessel he melted, if the temperature can not withstand even the iron?
In addition, one must keep in mind that during the boiling process, the glass must be continuously stirred. What he was mixed — a hand mixer? You have probably seen on TV the molten metal in the blast furnaces. The temperature is above 1500 degrees. Perhaps approach it with a hand mixer? And the temperature of the molten quartz.
I would still have believed some phrases in the article if it was written that the pensioner quartz made muddy pellet. But he made a real lens! And lens must be transparent (!), and there should be no bubbles and cord. Any photographer will penalize when buying a lens, if you find the glass bubble.

Why I don't believe a word pensioner? The fact that one of the stages of melting of glass is lightness. At this stage in the glass melt produces a large quantity of gases from substances clarifiers that are added to the charge. The resulting large bubbles quickly rise to the surface, capturing on the way the smaller ones, which in any case are formed during cooking.
Upon completion of the melting, the molten glass is subjected to delayed cooling in the industrial production of this cooling lasts 6-8 days. If it is uneven cooling of the mass, it formed the tension that will cause the glass cracking into several pieces. In order to avoid tensions caused uneven cooling of the mass obtained pieces of glass, the workpiece is heated to 500 °C and then subjected to exceptionally slow cooling in electric furnaces, so-called annealing. If the temperature drops dramatically in the glass there's a tension that will lead to the emergence of anisotropy. Also can appear secondary Midge - a large crowd in the mass of tiny glass bubbles, occupying a large part of its volume. Midge disperses a large amount of light passing through glass.

Now how do you believe that Silanes could at home to produce high quality lens?

Thus it appears that the mentioned method homemade quartz lens Henry Silanov would not work. Davie Leonid Konovalov examines issues of technology shooting with single lens. A detonation that acquire a high quality photo range of lenses, not just one. Use for shooting one lens leads to various defects such as blur and aberrations.

I believe now the further story? Of course not. I, as a student, she attended the course "Optics" and know that if the lens consists of a single lens, then this lens will be a lot of disadvantages, which are referred to as a generic term aberration. It is primarily spherical aberration and chromatic.
Most photographic lenses are designed using lenses with spherical surfaces. Such lenses are relatively simple to manufacture, but the spherical shape of the lens is not ideal for the formation of sharp images on a flat plate. The following figure illustrates a phenomenon of spherical aberration for a single positive spherical lens. The rays passing through the center of the lens and through its edge is focused at different points. Point is blurred, the contrast decreases, and a sharp image just isn't there.

He then gives as preparatory made by his friend with lens "Gelios-44" from which was withdrawn a large part of the lens (originally there were 6):

Comparing features photos taken with a monocle and photographs obtained by Celanova report that concludes that the latter made any other way:

And now, when you know the pattern of the image provides the lens with one lens (and know why this is so), would you believe that the images that led Silanes, in his article, made a monocle? In my opinion, the pictures shown in the article on "retro-photography" made vysokoobrazovannym (well fixed) lens Triplet in which 3 lens.

Leonid Konovalov according to a characteristic feature of photos trying to determine what camera was take pictures of the "memory fields". In the photos, where Henry M. posing with your instrument, you will notice the camera FKD 18x24.

The world's first retrofuturist G. M. Salanova

The magazine "Around the world"

Format camera FKD 18x24

Photo from page of the forum Leonid Vasilievich Konovalov

Leonid Konovalov about the equipment, where the pictures were taken:

And also lies the fact that the photos taken by the camera with bellows, pictured here.
The photo shows (I think not mistaken) — format camera FKD 18x24. From the title it is clear that it is designed for the photographic plates 18 by 24 cm, Usually it comes with a lens with a focal length of 300 mm. is About the same focal length we see "retro-camera" Solanova: distance from the lens to the plane of focusing (photographic plates) is approximately equal to the long side of the A4 sheet, if this sheet visually to attach to the camera.
According to the laws of optics, the longer the focal length of the lens, the less depth of field. Optics with a longer focal length easily recognizable by the optical design: when the sharpness impose on the person in the foreground, the background behind is confusion. If you (or your friends) have a camera with a 10x (or 12x) zoom, then you probably noticed that when you zoom closer to the image (i.e. remove the human face from a distance on the longest focus), the background is completely blurred with no sharpness.
And what we see in the photos in the article? Greater depth of field from the foreground to the background. In my opinion, such a large depth of sharpness give lenses with a focal length of 40-50 mm.

So my verdict is this — the photos are taken the usual Amateur camera "Change" with the standard three-lens Achromat lens "Triplet" (by the camera or fed) on 35-mm film. No special camera was not there, no hand-made lenses was not there, was not specially made film — it's all fiction. Double exposure made with a photographic enlarger on photographic paper.


Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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