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The difference in the perception of camera and eye

Added Tue, 20/12/2016
Источники

Often the camera image does not coincide with the world view that sees man, it was withdrawn.
In this article, we will describe the difference of these pictures and try to explain where it comes from. Here are to be considered features of conventional photo and video cameras with no special features (for example, x-rays or thermal imaging camera), widespread and used by eyewitnesses to capture NOF.

What the camera sees, but sees not the person

Due to the peculiarities of perception of the camera images may appear as a "false issue" and the significant details that explain the NOF that are not visible to the observer.

First in a large number gathered in the section "Versions", so details about them we will not tell. Next we will talk about how details invisible to the observer, can capture the camera.

About the peculiarities of human visual perception can be read in a separate article on our website. Here we touch on only some of them.

The first feature of human vision, which is worth mentioning – its selectivity. People notice what you are interested in and ignore irrelevant details. Therefore, the human perception depends on expectations, initial information, mood and other parameters. The camera, unlike the human, impartial and can capture the whole picture, which can be addressed later more thoroughly.

The field of view, sensitive to the details in humans is very small – about three degrees. Peripheral vision is sensitive not to detail, but above all to movement. Therefore, to obtain in the brain detailed images of the environment of the eye constantly scans her every moment, and gives the brain information about individual fragments, which later formed the whole picture. This principle of perception, taking into account selectivity in unusual circumstances, sometimes it helps to pass the important details.

The last feature of human visual perception follows from the previous big reaction time to the event. In short duration incidents the person can perceive only a specific area of the surrounding space and miss most of the information.

All these features lead to the fact that the testimony of each of the witnesses, as a rule, do not describe the full picture of the events. That is why in the study of NOF (as with the investigation of any event) so it is important to interview all available witnesses. Well, take a picture or video scene are of immense value, as they allow to eliminate the subjectivity of evidence and a detailed study of captured events.

The camera has a number of features that are not typical to the human eye:

  • Perception beyond the visible eye range of frequencies. This, in particular, due to the sensitivity of the CCD in the infrared region. In this black-and-white cameras generally have a sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than color cameras. [1] This feature allows you to record to the camera objects not visible to humans in normal light (e.g., light up the IR led of the remote control) and use it for shooting in low-light conditions (night vision camera).

 

IR led

  • The ability to control exposure time. The human eye has constant inertia of view, and got on its light sensitive element a photon of light has an effect, constant and finite in duration. The camera can also change the duration of this action by changing the exposure time and thus causing the photosensitive elements accumulate information during this time. This opportunity allows you to take quality pictures in low-light conditions and leads to the appearance of artifacts on images caused by hand shake or hit in the frame objects, the time spent which in one place is significantly less exposure time. Such objects can "smear" on the image at low velocity (turning into "ghosts" or "skayfish"), and does not register it at high.

 

"Skayfish" [2]

  • The presence of flash or additional light source when shooting. This can be as a positive factor, allowing to make high-quality pictures in low-light conditions, and negative, generating "false facts", for example, in the form of glare and reflections on glass or shiny surfaces.

 

The reflection on the glass

  • The discreteness of the information readout when shooting video (final frame rate), leading to the appearance of stroboscopic effect in the footage.

That the person sees, but does not see camera

Despite the ability to change characteristics in a wide range of values, of the camera remain by artificial devices, and have some limitations compared to the visual mechanism of man:

  • The camera shows the whole stage with constant, preset values of aperture, shutter speed and sensitivity, and therefore not able to cover the difference in the degree of illumination of high contrast scenes. The result of shooting such a scene, is usually uniformly illuminated background.

 

The difference in the illumination of the scene that the human eye perceives fine

  • Human vision is characterized cvetovodstvo. Our brain evens out the color balance so that the items has been preserved in its natural colors regardless of the color lighting. When shooting the color change of the illumination of the object inevitably leads to color change of the object.

Conclusion

The photo or video NOF can provide an additional and extremely valuable information to the experts in the investigation of fact. However, their analysis must take into account registration features of the environment specific camera settings and conditions of use.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»


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