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Evaluation instruments improvised

Added Tue, 20/12/2016
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The study of the phenomenon begins with investigation of the fact. At this stage it is necessary to exclude all the possible known explanations. For these purposes, use different methods that require estimation of the parameters of the environment.

There are quite a number of professional devices used, in particular, to study the issue. Many devices are measuring and, due to the high cost, complexity in operation and other factors, usually used at the stage of research. It is often rough estimation is enough to determine the right direction of further investigation. For this purpose, simple evaluation instruments, sometimes even integrated in modern mobile devices. In the absence of the use and possibilities of these devices, for example, when a random encounter with the unexplained, apply equivalent techniques.

Below we will consider a simple devices that allow to estimate the parameters of the environment in the early stages of research, NOF, and other equivalent methods.

The speed and direction of the wind
Because one of the hypotheses that attempt to explain some phenomena, is the influence of wind speed measurement and direction of air masses is quite an important task. With her good job, for example, an anemometer.

It consists of pan (or vane) vane, attached to the axis, which is connected with the measuring mechanism. If you encounter air flow wind pushes the cups, which spin around the axis.

Pocket anemometer [1]

There are many types of anemometers, different as to principle of operation and applications (e.g., open or confined space). [1]
To estimate these wind parameters can be used:

  • Sand and other small particles
  • Light things are carried by the wind
  • A candle and other source of fire

The application of sand and other small airborne particles, you need to dial them in a handful and sprinkle. Very small particles lingering in the air, will help to estimate the direction and approximate wind speed. In a similar way can be used and other light things: dry wood dust, foam pieces, light paper, etc.
 

Evaluation of the speed and direction of wind with the help of candles

Lighted candle, match or lighter in the direction and angle of the flame will also help to estimate the direction and speed of wind.

The acidity of the medium
It happens that the phenomenon is due to a simple chemical reaction. In this case, the researcher is required to determine the acidity of the medium – pH. This information would also help to determine the presence in the environment some living organisms.
Usually used for this purpose special devices, whose operation is based on the measurement of the EMF of the electrode system, which is proportional to the activity of hydrogen ions in solution. [2]
 

pH meter [2]

A simple and cheap method is the use of indicator strips.
 

Indicator strips for determining pH

One of the well-known acid-base indicators is litmus – colorant of natural origin (it is produced by some lichen species). An indicator commonly used paper impregnated with this substance. It is easy to find, and it's very cheap.
In that case, if you go for a litmus test in the store, you can try to find in his surroundings, red cabbage or Hibiscus tea.
 

Paper soaked in a decoction

Soaked in a decoction of one of these products pieces of plain paper are quite capable to replace litmus. It is worth noting that the broth should be very rich, and soaked the paper before applying must dry. In addition, the indicator properties of the Hibiscus tea is very much inferior to the red cabbage.

Temperature
Definition of temperature – the task is quite simple. Fairly accurate thermometers are now widespread, and in their absence it is possible to estimate temperature using our own experiences, based on the experience. However, it should be borne in mind that the physical sensation of the ambient temperature often depend on other indicators, such as humidity.
It is easy to evaluate and the temperature of the human body. It is believed that the increase in body temperature of 1 degree leads to an increase in heart rate of 10 beats. [4] to Estimate the temperature of the body can also use of alcohol and glass. Glass must be put on the forehead of a healthy person and on the forehead, whose temperature we need to evaluate drip alcohol and comparative of the evaporation time to judge the temperature.

Humidity
One of the important indicators, often cited hypotheses explaining the phenomena, is the humidity. It affects, for example, a person's physical condition or the presence of condensate, and its evaluation required the researcher NOF.
To measure the humidity typically use a hygrometer or psychometer.
A hygrometer is a measuring instrument used to measure humidity. There are several types of hygrometers, which are based on different principles: weight, hairline, film, electrolytic, condensing. [5]
The easiest way to determine the moisture content without the use of special devices – with the help of a glass of cold water.
 

A glass of cold water

Look at a glass of water from the fridge (or just very cold), put in the place where you need to determine the humidity:

  • if "misted" glass is quickly dried, then air dry;
  • if the glass does not dry out more than 5 minutes, the humidity is normal;
  • if the walls of the glass dripping condensation, the humidity is very high.

On the nature to assess the humidity, you can use the branch of a coniferous tree. For this you need to remove all the needles except one, then secure it vertically on a plate and observe. In dry weather the needle will rise and the rain to fall. This change in position of the needles is directly related to the humidity. This method also works with fir cone. Her scales are pressed tightly to each other in wet weather and open when dry. [10, 8]

Atmospheric pressure
Because the change in atmospheric pressure affects the state of living organisms and weather conditions, the researcher may want to evaluate. Usually for measuring atmospheric pressure a barometer is used. There are several types: liquid, mercury, mechanical and digital. [9]
 

A homemade barometer. Illustration

To evaluate the change in atmospheric pressure can, for example, using the bottle one-third filled with distilled water, and placed in it a thin glass tube. When the air pressure changes the water level in the tube will also change: if the water spills out through the tube, the pressure is low and if the water from the tube separates the air bubbles is high. [8]

Ionizing radiation
Unfortunately, many environmental parameters can be assessed only with the help of special devices. In this case, the dosimeter – device for measuring effective dose or of power of ionizing radiation for a certain period of time. There are a huge number, so the detail on them, we shall not stop. [6]
However, the effects of radiation on a living organism as a cause of ill health if you stay in certain places is one of the hypotheses explaining some unusual phenomena.
As assessment of the presence of strong ionizing radiation methods can be used, in which the principles of the work of some of the dosimeters:

Photographic method
The photographic method is based on measuring the degree of blackening of the emulsion under the influence of radiation. Gamma rays, acting on the molecules of silver bromide contained in the emulsion, knock out electrons of communication. With the formation of tiny crystals of silver, which cause darkening of photographic film when developing.
Comparing the blackening of the film with the standard, it is possible to evaluate the film dose of radiation as the intensity of darkening is proportional to the radiation dose.

Chemical method
Chemical method is based on determining changes in color of certain chemical substances under the influence of radiation. So, for example, chloroform during irradiation decays with the formation of hydrochloric acid, which, having accumulated a certain amount, it acts on the indicator, added to the chloroform. The color intensity of the indicator depends on the amount of hydrochloric acid that is formed under the influence of radiation, and the number of formed hydrochloric acid is proportional to the dose of radiation. Comparing the color of the solution with the existing standards, it is possible to determine the dose of radioactive radiation, impact on the solution. This method is based on the principle of work of a chemical dosimeter DP-70 MP.

Scintillation method
Scintillation method is based on the fact that under the influence of radiation some substances (zinc sulphide, sodium iodide, calcium tungstate, etc.) emit photons of visible light. The resulting flash of light (scintillation) can be registered. The number of flashes is proportional to the radiation intensity.

Ionization method
The ionization method is based on the fact that under the influence of radioactive radiation the isolated volume ionization of gases. While neutral molecules and atoms of the gas are divided into pairs of positive ions and electrons. If the irradiated volume to create an electric field, under the influence of force of the electric field the electrons, having negative charge, will move to the anode and positive ions to the cathode, i.e. between the electrodes to pass an electric current, called the ionization current. The higher the intensity, and thus the ionizing ability of radiation, the higher the strength of the ionization current. This makes it possible, by measuring ionization current to determine the intensity of radiation. This method is the main, and it is used in almost all dosimetric devices. [7]

Most of these methods for self-reproduction is quite difficult, but under some circumstances you can easily use a method of film. It is necessary to leave the film (after having protected her from the light, for example, wrapped in thick foil) in the place for a while. Under the influence of high doses of radiation unexposed photographic film loses contrast and covered with scatter artifacts over the entire area of the frame.

Conclusion

Thus, not having at hand the dedicated tools, it is possible to assess the state of the environment and to navigate what to do next. There are also a number of methods of orienteering, weather prediction, etc., but we did not here describe them, as there are specialized sites dedicated to survival in nature.

In any case, each researcher should not only use their knowledge and imagination to understand what physical phenomena he is dealing with and how to recognize them, but also to have a clear understanding of what he is doing and how he can use this knowledge in the future. The latter applies to all parameters and ways of removal of indications from professional equipment and finishing materials at hand.

Finally, the use of alternative methods of estimation of the parameters of the environment can not only promote the study of NOF, but to help avoid a dangerous situation.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»


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