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This section contains information about the representation of phenomena in the entertainment industry: movies, cartoons, books, etc.

Das grosse Fotofehler-Buch


Added Thu, 28/11/2019
Release date
Original title
Das grosse Fotofehler-Buch

"Photographing without mistakes" is a translation of the book by German author Kurt Fritsche "Das grosse Fotofehler-Buch", published in Leipzig in 1958.

In the book, Fritsche talks in detail about the mistakes that a photographer can make at all stages of taking a picture: from shooting to printing. The book is a reference book that lists the causes of image defects, as well as ways to prevent and correct them. Descriptions of many defects are accompanied by illustrations.

The book is divided by the author into three parts according to the stages of creating a photograph and, accordingly, making mistakes and defects in the picture.

  1. Shooting
  2. Negative
  3. Positive

We will not dwell in detail on all the defects described in the book and ways to prevent them, since this will require transferring almost all of its contents here. We advise everyone interested to read the book in full, but here we will only list the headings of the content by which you can evaluate the list of topics under consideration, and we will add examples of defective images to the gallery.

This book can be very useful for people who are interested in photography and the history of photography, as well as for practitioners of analog photography. It is also a must-read for paranormal researchers. The examples given in the book will make it possible to identify or exclude from probable explanations defects in shooting on film photographs and negatives acting as material evidence of supernatural phenomena, as well as to identify the stage of shooting at which these defects could appear.

We express our great gratitude to Alexey, who provided the book for review.

Part 1. "Shooting"

Spherical aberration; Chromatic aberration; Shooting architecture (Converging lines); Astigmatism; Anti–sun lens hood; Depth of sharply depicted space (setting the depth of field with tables and practical examples); Aperture (principle of operation and application of various options); Change in resolution during diaphragming; Distortion; Edge illumination of a reel roller film; Illumination from a malfunction of the rear wall of the camera (malfunction of the wall or reflexes from camera parts); Illumination of the film in a temporary cassette (damage strips of velvet at the entrance hole); Incorrect shutter speeds (probable causes - oil solidification or dirt on the spring, as well as its weakening); Shutter malfunctions (for the central and curtain shutter); Shading; Shading of the image corners; Image with double contours (Shaking); Image on the edges of the negative is missing; Double images (two pictures on the same part of the film); Blurred (blurred) image; Reduction of the image field (when focusing on the sharpness of nearby images); Perspective distortion (distortion of the size of the photographed object when the camera angle changes);  Distorted lines (distortion); the light Sources in the frame; framing Incorrect; the Tape is faulty velvet ribbon; length difference (partial or complete blur images); Fault magazine; Translucent magazines; Coma; Double contours of the subject, Blurred contours; the image field Curvature; the Dark circle in the center negative (not closed wall of the shutter); Broken black lines, Fur or camera puncture; Sagging of fur; Packed lenses (are replacements for the wide-angle lens or telephoto lens); Underexposure; Prescott with the tip of the lens; a Blur, caused by the filter (wearing a distorting filter); Blurred image, Blur image with optical printing; a Blur at the edge of the image; Shared blur; Blur from movement; Partial blur; Night shot; the Object is falling to one side; Gently draws lenses (uncorrected spherical aberration); Wide lens; Ghosting; Mirror; Parallax; Overexposure; the Mechanism to rewind the film refuses; a Prospect; Perspective distortion; Semicircular harmful blackening; Shooting against the light; the Spots on the negative from the glare; the Spot from the window of the rear cover of the camera; Spot light (examples of photos with reflections of light entering the lens); the Sharpness in depth; the Sharpness of outlines; Reflexes; reflexes Star in the lenses; Stray light; Filters; Colorless filters; Improper use of filters; Overall sensitivity; Concussion; Shooting sports; landscape Photography; Shooting at a close distance; Portrait photography; Converging lines; the Telephoto lens; Shooting in fog; light Penetration in fil'mpak; Focal length difference and chromatic aberration; Focal length (short, normal, long); the Scratches on the lens; Civitacastellana (sensitization); The exposure is determined.

Part 2. "Negative"

The harmful effects of bacteria and insects; Partial veiling; Dichroic (color) veil; Yellow veil; Calcium veil; Brown edge veil, edge veil, a Common gray veil, Colored veil; Gradation (transfer of positive or negative material of various degrees of brightness of the object); Poor tonal gradation; Desensitization (insensitive to certain light); Tanning negatives; Tanning solution; Yellow veil; the edge illumination; Too coarse grit; Fractures; Image not available; Too strong contrasts; Too weak contrasts; Dupe (duplicate negatives); Dark outlines; Brown marginal veil; Brown education sulfur silver; Crystals in the emulsion; a Dark circle on the negative; Protective varnishes; Lakirovannuyu negatives; Branching lines (electrical discharges); Dark lines; Copper amplification; Makoterty developer; Premorbidity (defect occurs when there is insufficient mixing of the developing solution); Raids (precipitation: contaminated developer, fixer, utensils, hard water); Whitish-gray powder; Brown patina; Matte dark patina; the Milk deposits on the negative; the Opalescent coating on the solutions; emulsion there is a RAID, Sluggish negatives (low contrast); Contrast negatives; Painted negatives; Dense negatives; Transparent areas on the negative (shading in the exposure); the Bright edge of the negative; Thin negatives; under-exposure; Rudoproyavlenie; Partial discoloration of the negative; the Appeal to the positive; Eliminate ghosting; the Deposition of oxidation products; Clarifying solution; the weakening of the negatives; the Weakening spots; Partial weakening; the Reliever is not valid; the Reliever with ammonium persulfate; Furmanovsky reliever; Stop bath; Fingerprints; Overexposure; Perepravnaya; Melting emulsion; Dense negatives; damage to the emulsion; White stripes on emulsion; Wavy blonde streaks in the honeycomb; Bands from winding; Brown opalescent stripes; Light bars; Light strips with dense areas of the image; the Dark bands; Dark bands with a light areas of the image; damage to the emulsion or base side of the negative; Blackening of pressure; Blackening on the film in the form of a circle; Flushing; Lining developers; Developers, tanning emulsion; crystals in the developer; fine-Grained developers; the Undissolved chemicals developer; Tropical developer; Manifestation; the Manifestation of tanks; Manifestation in the tanks; secondary display; Uneven manifestation; the Manifestation of elevated temperature; a Manifestation Pro low temperature; Too long for the manifestation; the manifestation Too short; the Bubbles in the emulsion; Air bubbles; Dust; Shiny spots; the Spot in the form of an arc on the negative; Clay-yellow spots; Brown spot; Matte stains on emulsion; Small and transparent spots; Small light spot; Small dark spots; the Spots of mold; the Rusty spots, Light spots with dark borders; Silver stain; Grey spots and stripes; Honeycombed bright spots, Dark spots, Colored spots, Bright spots, Dark spots; Razdelyvanie emulsion layer; Respublikasi solution; The destruction layer from moisture; Electric discharges; Contaminated solutions and dishes; Preparation of solutions; Reticulation; Strengthening of mercury; the Scars on the emulsion layer; Curl the edges of the emulsion layer; "Snowfall" on the negative; Complex compounds of silver; Solarization; Pseudosclerotia (dark contours of the light areas of the image); the Slide emulsions; Drying; Fast drying; Thin negatives; Dark spots; the Black dots in the form of small rashes; Increased uranium accountability; negatives; Copper amplification; Spotted uranium strengthening; strengthening of Mercury; Uranium strengthening; strengthening Chrome; Tanning fixer; Acid fixer; Too slow fixer; Destruction fixing salt; Fixation; "Filipe"; Storage of chemicals and solutions; Strengthening chrome; Scratches negative; Scratch; Scratch and stripes; Longitudinal scratches; Color veil; cleaning; Crystals in the emulsion; Sticky areas on the emulsion; Small defect on the emulsion; the Uneven surface of the emulsion; Emulsion melts; damage to the emulsion; Cracked emulsion; Emulsion bubble; Spotted emulsion; Scars in the emulsion; the Slide edges of the emulsion; Emulsion layer slides; the Fragile emulsion; Rough emulsion; The effect of Eberhard (small-format negatives while maintaining the same exposure under the same conditions the symptoms are somewhat different than for large-format materials, as equally illuminated field if they have different values give different blackening).

Part 3. "Positive"

Aljumokalievyh alum; Fiber emulsion; Yellow veil; Calcium veil; the gray veil; Grey edge veil; change the tone of the prints in hot polishing; Polishing defects; Matte edge on glossy prints; Uneven peeling prints when polishing; Fine matte spots on a glossy prints; the Adhesion of fingerprints in hot glossing; Shell when polishing; the Gray tone glossy prints; Cracks in the form of shells while glossing; Scratches and scratches on the glossy prints; Tanning prints; Shading; the decrease of the grain size; the picture is Too sluggish, Too much of a contrast image; Matte or granular plaque; Unsharp image; Unsharp image while increasing; Prescott image; Newtonova ring; Treatment of positive, negative; Ghosting; Clarifying solution; Defects in laboratory lighting; the weakening of the prints; the Reliever is not valid; the Uneven weakening; Stopping solution; Fingerprints; fingerprints Too bright; Light angles on the print; Gray prints; the prints are Too dark; the Center of the print darker edges; Yellowing of prints in storage or after gluing; Light and dark stripes in the form of shells; the Dark bands; Bands from friction; Dark and light fading; Uneven blackening; Flushing; reduction in the duration of the wash; Manifestation; the manifestation of the two solutions; the Expression is too long; the Developer is not valid; the Bubbles in the emulsion; the Spots when polishing; Messy colored and silver spots; Yellow-brown spots, Yellow spots in the hot drying; grease Spots on the prints; the Spots on the epigastric side of the paper; Brown spots on the edges; Light spots; Silver spots; spots of moisture; Dark spots; Matte spots on a glossy prints; Retouch spots; Speckled image, Detail in the lights do not exist; the light diffusing lens; Curl the edges of the print; Twisting prints developer; Twisting prints in drying; Soda water tub; Drying; drying; Defects during hot drying; the weakening of the image during drying; peaking during drying; the Alignment of converging lines; Change colors of the prints in the fixer; the Uneven tone of the print; Bright point; Dark spots; Transformation; a Relaxed figure when increasing; contrast is Too light by increasing accountability; prints; Fixer; Fixative for papers; Tanning fixer for papers; the Oscillation properties of paper; photo Paper with expired period of storage; Storage of paper; Removing scratches while increasing; the deterioration of the color of the imprint; Additional exposure; Exposure; Emulsion breaks down; damage to the emulsion; Emulsion bubbles; the Destruction of the emulsion; the Destruction of the emulsion bacteria and insects; Emulsion slides; the Fragile emulsion; the Effect of Herschel (oscillation properties of the paper); the Effect Calle (too contrasty image); the Effect of Russelia (on photosensitive emulsion even in the package are the chemicals and the manifestation appears grey edge veil or brown spots on the edges).

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