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«Марсовская паника» 1921 г. в Эстонии

Added Thu, 10/10/2019
Дата публикации
Sun, 01/01/1928

In the German journal "Zeitschrift des Vereins fur Volkskunde" (1925-26, Heft 4) placed article astronomer of the Observatory in Tartu (Estonia) V. Anderson with interesting materials on the "martovskoi panic" that took place in Estonia in 1921

From the author of quotations from newspaper articles and articles is seen as already at the beginning of this year began to spread rumors about the alleged irregularities in the celestial spheres that threaten the well-being of the inhabitants of the Earth, in particular Estonia. The first series of rumors, the most widespread, for Mars, as if exploding into several pieces, one of which must fall to the Ground.

For example, read the following:

"In the last days in Tartu (Yuryev) spread sensational rumors that Mars exploded into three parts: some professors of natural history talked about in schools and explained that globe threatened, as one of the pieces of Mars may fall to the Ground and completely destroy it. Someone even calculated that the first chip will be February 2, and thus the Earth remained there only about a week. On Saturday we learned that these rumors, as reported astronomical Observatory, wrong."

According to the newspaper, disseminators of rumors are malicious characters that seek to retrieve some of his benefits. Newspapers, as can be seen from the following excerpts, I think the hero of the panic of the clergy.

Giving few details about the nature of a threatening celestial phenomena, the newspaper lead is sometimes interesting everyday details. So, in another newspaper we read:

"On Saturday 22 January, the rumors about the explosion of Mars provided the backdrop to many conversations... talked about it half-seriously, half-jokingly... some citizens are beginning to think about the end of the earth calculations. Customary even a preliminary Wake, as if a piece of Mars has targeted Earth, then surely it has to end in disaster and the curvature of the axis (?). Fortunately, today I learned that St. George Observatory does not know anything about such danger."

"In the revel run for two weeks, the rumors about the imminent end of the world. These rumors obviously come from some religious sects. Their use involves, probably, a different spiritual speculators who hope to use the excitement caused by to promote "religious education". You can be surprised just how little of our time thinking people.

"An absurd rumor is taken as truth."

Fear of the end of the world and the rumors about the explosion of Mars, extending from the capital city (revel), also reached other cities and local circles of believers. "Awake, brothers and sisters" were convinced the end of the world in the coming February, not received and not paid wages... Among conscious people tell you that all this joke is the result of a bet between a city teacher and nechim rich man. The teacher won, because his idea to fool all the gullible in the city have borne fruit; they say that he received 25 000 brands.

Another newspaper reported on 10 February:

"Lately a lot of talk about the Mars chip, which was supposed to fall into the Gulf of Finland (?!). 2 Feb passed, but the collision with the Mars chip can not hear anything. One evening in late January, I heard two educated person arguing about this incident. One of them, pointing to a bright star, claimed: "This is chip Mars, it will soon collide with the Earth. This star I had never seen. Tomorrow I'm going away from the sea shore, somewhere in Fallin or Valk (?), until the danger passes".

Among these newspaper news concerning Mars, there are reports about the bright fireball, also alarmed the already frightened population.

"Tonight, February 1, in Nikolaev the Grange, South of Palifera, was observed extremely beautiful meteor. Already in the upper atmosphere, the meteor began to glow, what attracted the attention of one of the witnesses. When the meteor approached the Earth, in the denser layers of the atmosphere, its brightness has increased, so close to the earth's surface, he described its radiance all over the neighborhood; at a considerable distance, everything was perfectly clear. The light meteor has penetrated even into the houses, of which even ran in many places, people to check off whether Mars: the news of this expected danger has already spread to the villages and finds more and more adherents. The fall was heard also the rumble..."

The same newspaper on 11 February:

"On Wednesday, February 2 at 9 at night. was observed in the vicinity Parnova a peculiar phenomenon: people in the East, dark clouds appeared the lightning, and the sky was clear and studded with countless stars; the thunder after this lightning was not audible. Others saw it soon after or before these lightning, about 9 at night., the sky turned red and it lasted about 15 minutes. Red lighting was so strong that all the items on the ground — snow, trees, bushes, houses, etc. — also looked red. At the beginning of this amazing phenomenon of red lights spread down black pillars. As you can guess — it was a kind of Northern lights. Because on the same day, February 2, the expected loss of the Earth from a collision with Mars, many witnesses were extremely afraid of this phenomenon, and assumed that was the end of the world; some of them from this fear ill".

Haven't forgotten about the bombing of Mars, as spread new sensation from the same region, namely that one of sturmovich rings exploded, which was allegedly spotted in the Russian observatories. Exploded in the beginning of the year the ring has disappeared to who knows where.

All these rumors were refuted in the Newspapers of the Estonian astronomers, two of which, Rodman and Lowlander placed large articles describing what is known in science about Mars. In the first of these articles reported, among other things, that in the described period, persons wishing to seek clarification on the issue of doomsday, hourly phone calls to the Observatory in Tartu.

There is no doubt that all of the "Markovska panic" is a clear indication of the amazing ignorance of all segments of the population in astronomical matters and once again reaffirms the need for teaching the basic astronomical information. One popular literature, which, in fact, in astronomy it is not so poor, there are apparently not enough.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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