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This section contains information about phenomena that are generally believed to have a supernatural, mystical nature, and the very existence of which is currently in doubt.Phenomena Hierarchy

The circles and other formations

Hierarchy
Added Wed, 05/10/2016
Sources
Attributes
burn marks
geometrically regular or complex patterns
flattened plants

Crop circles — a term denoting the drawings in the form of rings, circles and other geometric shapes formed on the margins of flattened plants. These drawings can be small or to have so big size that they can be seen entirely only from the plane.

In addition to the classic flattened ears on the field to this phenomenon include burned grass, geometric traces on the ground, snow, and other surfaces, including on the water.

This phenomenon relates to the fact if the scene were found traces of the above regardless of the existence of other phenomena (the place of landing of UFOs, observation, fairies, etc.).

The first known mention of circles in England refers specifically to 1618 (in Chronicles referred to the miracle of the appearing circles in the grain fields) in the Netherlands – for to 1503. The earliest documentary pominaniem considered English brochure 1678 called the "Mowing-Devil" (devil-mower).

References to sections of flattened wheat are found in the legends of different peoples, for example, in Russian folk tales, Mongolian folk tales, and many others with very similar storylines. Individual episodes of these stories Ershov merged a rich adventure story "the little humpbacked Horse", written in 1834. Although in all these works no mention of clear geometric shapes and speaks only of flattened crops, often lead to the confirmation of the antiquity of this phenomenon.

The first scientific study was published in the 22nd issue of the journal Nature, July 29, 1880.

However, the phenomenon was marginal until the end of the twentieth century, and has dramatically gained popularity in the early 90-ies. Only in 1990 was found about 500 pieces, and in subsequent years their number exceeded a few thousand. Being first just with circles, the figures are all complicated with time.

Modern "circles" are often very complicated structures, for example, discovered August 14, 2001 in Wiltshire figure has a diameter of about 450 meters and consists of 409 circles. Today, recorded a few pieces a week, sometimes several a day.

To date registered more than 5000 pieces in 40 countries. However, most of them recorded in the vicinity of Avebury, UK.

The phenomenon is found in almost all countries. The most frequent references are found in England, but they can be found in Japan, Australia, America, South Africa, Spain, Germany, France, Bulgaria, Russia. In other countries somewhat less.

The classic manifestation of the phenomenon are considered the figures on cereals – rye, wheat, etc. Many researchers are of the opinion that the appearance of the figures on other underlying surfaces is impossible, however, it is possible to result following examples:

  • Italy, Brazil, Australia and other parts of the world: icons appear among the bushes;
  • Afghanistan: a group of geologists in the mountains found more than 30 circles-pictograms in deep snow;
  • Egypt, Red sea: Charlotte Wusthoff aboard passenger aircraft found clear pictograms on the sand in a desert area of Egypt;
  • Kharkov: in the ice of a frozen river MZA discovered the imprint of a ring with a diameter of 20.7 meters;
  • Samara: two circles with a diameter of about 20 meters discovered in a snowy field near the airport Kurumoch. The observation that was made on Board of an airplane taking off at low altitude. No trace of a person or equipment on a nearby snow-covered space was not, and it completely eliminates the artificial nature of origin of the detected circles.

As signs of authenticity applies only to formations on the cereal box, and for other cases such signs have not yet been developed, this article will address the phenomenon of "crop circles" in its classical manifestation, that is, on the cereal box, as the underlying surface.

Until 1990 he met, as a rule, only very simple, mostly circular form. Since 1990, there was an increase in the complexity of the circles - there were huge complexes of circles with various branches. They have been given the name "icon". Since then, pictograms have become more and more complex, more and more away from simple geometric shapes.

There are many hypotheses of the origin of the circles. Details are described in the article by Richard Taylor, devoted for the most part the history of the study circles, and considering many theories from the 19th century to the present day. All these hypotheses can be divided into several categories.

Hoax

  • In September 1991, the population of great Britain David Carley and Douglas bower confessed to creating the circles. According to them, the first pattern they did in 1978, inspired by photographs of the tracks left in the grain fields of agricultural machinery.
  • A group of creators of crop circles, founded by John Landberg demonstrated that it is possible to manufacture almost all circles, including those analogs which are recognized by cereology authentic.
  • Joe Nickel, senior research fellow of the Committee for the scientific study of allegedly paranormal phenomena, argues that the circles are all signs of counterfeits: They are concentrated in the South of the UK, they are becoming more complex with time (the skill of the creators is growing), the creators of hide and remain anonymous. Objections to this hypothesis are constructed in particular on the fact that a careful study of the figures shows complex changes in the structure of plants that cannot be reproduced in the field. It also points to the complexity and large portion sizes of formations that does not fit well with the short time interval (one night) required to create them.
  • Lights selhoznauk assure that if you fall on the field of winter crops, within a circle, to make a “loading dose” of ammonium nitrate, it is perekopki nitrogen plants within the circle will grow faster and achieve such growth, thin stems die from the slightest breeze. You can stack them with a rope in a spiral (this picture is observed in “crop circles”). That was demonstrated by the journalists of “Komsomolskaya Pravda” in one of the private farms in the Moscow region in 2001 year. However, it is not clear how with this method it is possible to create shapes with clear boundaries and a few mixed layers of the substrate.
  • Richard Taylor believes that manufacturers of field ornaments are cutting the grass using microwave radiation. The basic tools of "artists", apparently, are torn from microwave ovens magnetrons are powered from a powerful portable battery. And reconcile steps helps GPS navigation. However, if you find the original article by Richard Taylor referenced, ndwiga this theory, it turns out that she is more dedicated to the history of study circles than to study. At the end is a link to research group BLT Research Team, whose members allegedly were able to reproduce changes in the structure of plants by microwave radiation of the magnetron from a conventional microwave. And scientists Haselhoff and Levengood even built a model that describes these processes. However, all this remains a theory, to repeat the reality on the field is not yet possible. In addition, the use of radiation gives a clear edges of the formation, and this is one of the signs of the truth. The author of the article did not even insist on such origin of the circles, the article is just a review, just mention the possibility of using the modern equipment (microwaves and GPS) scams when creating circles.

Natural causes

  • One theory suggests that the circles are created by small vortexes that send to the ground a strong flow of air, primina plants. Such vortices are often found in the hilly regions of the UK.
  • Dr. Terrence copper from the organization for the study of tornadoes and storms (TORRO, Wiltshire) believes that such vortices are the energy charge (the theory of plasma turbulence). Dust particles caught in the spinning charged air, can emit light, which explains the glowing lights reported by eyewitnesses. But still the question remains — how air vortices can produce such a complex icon?
  • As reported by the Washington post, recently a California researcher don Scott observed the appearance of a mysterious circles on the fields of rye in southern England. Among his equipment was a radiation detector, the infrared vision devices, cameras and movie cameras. Don Scott came from a well-known fact that lying on the grass circles indicate the presence of radioactive isotopes. Therefore, before to install monitoring equipment, he determined with the help of a radiation detector areas of a rye field exceeding the normal radiation level. After two weeks of searching, he found such an anomaly, and the waiting began. A few days later in 1 hour 57 minutes in the morning included automatic infrared camera. The night-vision goggles, Scott watched as the ears of rye begin to bend, forming a circle. Increasing the image, the researcher saw little creatures scurrying between the ears. It was not aliens from outer space, not mystical creatures of ancient Celtic legends. The builders of the circles were ants, one of the insect species possessing primitive social organization. What makes ants walk in a circle? By assumption, Scott, the direction of movement of ants determines the magnetic field of the Earth. This theory does not fit with the history of the development of the phenomenon and doesn't explain centers of the circles, though it is considered the most plausible, "because the ants are everywhere". We also failed to find the source of where describes in detail this theory and its research.
  • One of the latest theories explaining rectangular, square and other simple formations is uneven evaporation of the moisture in the ground ancient buildings. A study conducted aerial archaeologists from the Royal Commission dealing with issues related to ancient and historical monuments of Wales:

    The figures, discovered in the fields, they argue, testify to the diverse human activities in the region. Rather, this study has also helped hot weather. Grass for her faded, and the landscape began to emerge figures that can be seen only from the air. In other cases, drought would play a different role.

    The fact is that moisture in a large quantity has accumulated in underground trenches created in ancient times artificially. Over them the grass grows better and around the burn. This was the cause of manifestation of signs. Resemble the figures of the mysterious crop circles. However, scientists also taped square and rectangular structures.

    In their opinion, the marks are the remains of fortresses and castles, prehistoric farms and houses.

    Because of the heat, the plants wither completely if they have grown right over the ancient Foundation — it prevents to accumulate moisture in the soil. Or water, in contrast, accumulates in the artificial ditches — in this case, the grass grows longer and thicker. Anyway, notice the difference only during long periods of drought.

Mind

  • One of the assumptions is that the crop circle is the trace of a different mind. For example, traces of landing UFOs. Or on the contrary — specifically sent to the earthlings messages to other planets. However, this theory lies in the same plane as the question of the existence of UFOs and other anomalous phenomena — scientific evidence of the existence of alien intelligence is still not received, despite the fact that from a scientific point of view, its existence is highly likely. Perhaps the reason for this is that the scientific works on search of extraterrestrial civilizations at the moment concentrated only on the narrow area of the search signal of a certain frequency, similar to artificial.

Translated by «Yandex.Translator»

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