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This section contains information about phenomena that are generally believed to have a supernatural, mystical nature, and the very existence of which is currently in doubt.Phenomena Hierarchy

A vampire

Hierarchy
Added Wed, 05/10/2016
Sources
Attributes
anthropomorphic creature
afraid of sunlight
sexual relations with the victim
living dead
flying creature
the manipulation of the actions of the victim
the manipulation of the thoughts of the victim
no shadow
it feeds on life energy
turns into an animal
turns into fog
asks to log in
goes through walls
drinking the blood
superpowered creature
glowing eyes

Vampire is a word of unknown, though rather late, origin, found in German, romance, and most Slavic languages; but it is not found in Church Slavonic, nor in medieval Latin, nor even in old and middle German. To the West of Europe, it came from Germany, where, in turn, it was adopted from the Slavs. It means a dead man who has risen from the grave, who sucks the blood of sleeping people.

Below we will describe a brief history of vampire beliefs.

Stories of the dead shedding blood are found in almost all cultures around the world, including the oldest. Vampire-like spirits called Lilu are mentioned in early Babylonian demonology, and blood-sucking akshars are mentioned in even earlier Sumerian mythology. In India, stories of vetals, vampire-like creatures that inhabit corpses, were common in Sanskrit short stories.

The vampire myth as we know it originated in Eastern Europe from Slavic folklore, where vampires were creatures that killed people by drinking their blood or by strangling them (this is discussed in more detail in the next section).

In the eighteenth century, the threat of vampires was taken very seriously in Eastern Europe. Even civil servants were involved in the hunt for them.

It all started with an outbreak of complaints about vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Habsburg monarchy from 1725 to 1734. Two well-known (and for the first time fully documented by the authorities) cases involved Peter Blagojevic (Peter Plogojowitz) and Arnold Paole (Arnold Paole) from Serbia. According to the story, Blagojevich died at the age of 62, but returned a couple of times after his death, asking for food from his son. The son refused and was found dead the next day. Blagojevich soon returned and attacked some of the neighbors, who bled to death.

In another famous case, Arnold paole, a former soldier turned farmer who was allegedly attacked by a vampire a few years ago, died while haying. After his death, people began to die and everyone believed that it was paole who preyed on the neighbors.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the belief in vampires reached not only the ears of the king of England, but also spread throughout New England, particularly to Rhode island and Eastern Connecticut. In these areas, there are many documented cases of families digging up those they once loved and removing the hearts from the corpses, believing that the deceased was a vampire responsible for illness and death in the family (although the word "vampire" was never used to describe him or her).

The belief in vampires still exists. Although some cultures have retained their original beliefs in the undead, most modern believers are influenced by the artistic image of the vampire as it appears in films and literature.

In the 1970s, there were rumors (spread by the local press) of a vampire hunting at Highgate cemetery in London. Adult vampire hunters crowded the cemetery in large numbers. Among the several books describing this case are those of Sean Manchester, a local resident who was one of the first to suggest the existence of a "Highgate Vampire" and who claimed to have exorcised and destroyed every vampire nest in the area.

In modern folklore in Puerto Rico and Mexico, the Chupacabra is considered a creature that feeds on the flesh or drinks the blood of domestic animals. This gives reason to consider it another type of vampire.

In late 2002 and early 2003, hysteria over so-called vampire attacks spread across the African country of Malawi. The mob stoned one to death and attacked at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, based on the belief that the government was in cahoots with the vampires.

 

In Romania in February 2004, some relatives of the late Toma Petre feared that He had become a vampire. They pulled out his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water to drink it later.

In January 2005, rumors surfaced that someone had bitten several people in Birmingham, England. Then there were rumors of a vampire roaming the area. However, local police claimed that such crimes were not reported. Apparently, this case was an urban legend.

In 2006, the American mathematical physicist Costas J. Efthimiou (Ph. D. in mathematical physics, associate Professor at the University of Central Florida), along with his student Sohang Gandhi, published an article that used geometric progression to try to expose the features of vampire nutrition, arguing that if each feeding of a vampire generates another vampire, it is only a matter of time before the entire population of the Earth will consist of vampires, or when they will die out. However, the idea that the victim of a vampire becomes a vampire itself does not appear in all vampire folklore, and is not generally accepted among modern people who believe in vampires.

Some types of vampires (for example, East Slavic), not only drink blood, but also have a sexual and erotic interest, thus feeding on vital energy. From such love, a woman loses weight, turns pale, pines, gets sick, loses vitality, becomes withdrawn, silent, and dies.

It is difficult to make a General description of the folklore vampire, since its features vary greatly among different cultures. Here are a few common features of vampires:

  • A vampire is a relatively immortal creature, you can kill it, but it doesn't age.

  • This is a supernatural being, and it has physical strength that is many times greater than that of a human, not to mention supernatural abilities.

  • The appearance of a European vampire consists largely of features that can distinguish it from an ordinary corpse, once you open the grave of a suspected vampire. The vampire has a healthy appearance and ruddy skin (possibly pale), it is often plump, it has regrown hair and nails, and everything else it is completely decomposed.

  • The most common ways to destroy a vampire are to drive an aspen stake through their heart, decapitate them, and completely incinerate their body.

  • Chinese vampire stories also state that if a vampire stumbles across a bag of rice on his way, he/she will count all the grains. Similar myths are recorded on the Indian Peninsula, in South America

  • Items that protect against vampires (as well as other supernatural creatures) were garlic (this is more typical of European legends), sunlight, wild rose stalk, hawthorn and all sacred things (cross, Holy water, crucifix, rosary, star of David, etc.), as well as aloe, hung behind the door or near it, according to South American superstitions. In Eastern legends, sacred items such as the Shinto seal were often protected from vampires. In the Christian tradition, vampires cannot enter a Church or other sacred place, as they are servants of the devil.

  • Sometimes it is believed that vampires can change shape. They could turn into wolves, rats, moths, spiders, snakes, owls, crows, and many others.

  • Vampires from European legends do not cast shadows and do not have reflections. Perhaps this is due to the vampire's lack of soul.

  • Some peoples have a belief that a vampire can't enter a house without an invitation.

Despite this, the phenomenon is not vampirism itself as such, since bloodlust, as a type of food, is inherent in creatures known to science.

Although it is now the 21st century, myths and legends are firmly embedded in human society. The myth of the vampire phenomenon is no exception. If earlier the image of a vampire evoked horror on a person, now it is romanticized. This image has imitators, ranging from harmless teenagers walking through cemeteries at night, to violent maniacs who actually drink the blood of their victims.

In the modern world, in addition to the established image of the vampire as a person who rose from the grave and drinks blood, new variations have appeared. Since blood was considered a receptacle of vital energy, now food for vampires in human form is considered simply energy. Hence the belief in energy vampires. Bloodlust, as a type of food, mostly remained only for animals of unknown origin (for example, Chupacabra).

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Pontianak

A creature from Malay, Indonesian and Filipino folklore, representing a female vampire spirit.

Variants of the names Matianak, Pontianak, Puntianak, Khantu Pontianak.​‌‌​‌‌​ ​‌‌‌​‌‌ ​​‌‌‌‌

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